Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Delors. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Delors. Mostrar todas las entradas

Basic Learning Needs: Different Frameworks

A árvore da vida - Silvio Alvarez

Rosa María Torres

▸ The World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990) proposed and adopted an "expanded vision of basic education", in an out of school, including children, youth and adults. Such expanded vision of basic education was defined as "education aimed at meeting Basic Learning Needs." It identified seven areas of BLN that are common to children, youth and adults: 1. surviving, 2. developing one’s full capacities, 3. living and working in dignity, 4. participating fully in development, 5. improving the quality of life, 6. making informed decisions, and 7. continuing to learn. 

▸ Manfred Max-Neef's proposal of "Human Scale Development" (1993) defined a set of fundamental human needs and satisfactors, as summarized in the table below.


Fundamental
Human Needs
Being
(qualities)
Having
(things)
Doing
(actions)
Interacting
(settings)
subsistence
physical and
mental health
food, shelter
work
feed, clothe,
rest, work
living environment,
social setting
protection
care,
adaptability
autonomy
social security,
health systems,
work
co-operate, plan,
take care of, help
social environment,
dwelling
affection
respect, sense
of humour,
generosity,
sensuality
friendships,
family,
relationships
with nature
share, take care of,
make love, express
emotions
privacy,
intimate spaces
of togetherness
understanding
critical
capacity,
curiosity, intuition
literature,
teachers, policies
educational
analyse, study,meditate
investigate,
schools, families
universities,
communities,
participation
receptiveness,
dedication,
sense of humour
responsibilities,
duties, work,
rights
cooperate,
dissent, express
opinions
associations,
parties, churches,
neighbourhoods
leisure
imagination,
tranquillity
spontaneity
games, parties,
peace of mind
day-dream,
remember,
relax, have fun
landscapes,
intimate spaces,
places to be alone
creation
imagination,
boldness,
inventiveness,
curiosity
abilities, skills,
work,
techniques
invent, build,
design, work,
compose,
interpret
spaces for
expression,
workshops,
audiences
identity
sense of
belonging, self-
esteem,
consistency
language,
religions, work,
customs,
values, norms
get to know
oneself, grow,
commit oneself
places one
belongs to,
everyday
settings
freedom
autonomy,
passion, self-esteem,
open-mindedness
equal rights
dissent, choose,
run risks, develop
awareness
anywhere

▸ The Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century (Delors Report, 1996) identified four pillars for education and learning: learning to be, learning to do, learning to know, and learning to live together.

Seven complex lessons in education for the future Invited by UNESCO to express his ideas on the essentials of education for the future in terms of his conception of “complex thought”, Edgar Morin came up with seven key principles: 

1. Detecting error and illusion
"The purpose of education is to transmit knowledge, and yet education is blind to the realities of human knowledge, its systems, infirmities, difficulties, and its propensity to error and illusion. Education does not bother to teach what knowledge is."
2. Principles of pertinent knowledge
"Here is a major problem that is always misunderstood: how can we encourage a way of learning that is able to grasp general, fundamental problems and insert partial, circumscribed knowledge within them."
3. Teaching the human condition
"Humans are physical, biological, psychological, cultural, social, historical beings. This complex unity of human nature has been so thoroughly disintegrated by education divided into disciplines, that we can no longer learn what human being means. This awareness should be restored so that every person, wherever he might be, can become aware of both his complex identity and his shared identity with all other human beings."
4. Earth identity
"The future of the human genre is now situated on a planetary scale. This is another essential reality neglected by education, that should become a major subject. Knowledge of current planetary developments that will undoubtedly accelerate in the 21st century, and recognition of our earth citizenship, will be indispensable for all of us."
5. Confronting uncertainties
"We have acquired many certainties through science but 20th century science has also revealed many areas of uncertainty. Education should include the study of uncertainties that have emerged in the physical sciences (microphysics, thermodynamics, cosmology), the sciences of biological evolution, the historical sciences."
6. Understanding each other
"Understanding is both a means and an end of human communication. And yet we do not teach understanding. Our planet calls for mutual understanding in all directions. Given the importance of teaching understanding on all educational levels at all ages, the development of this quality requires a reform of mentalities. This should be the task of education for the future."
7. Ethics for the human genre 

"Education should lead to an “anthropo-ethics” through recognition of the ternary quality of the human condition: a human being is an individual - society - species. In this sense, individual / species ethics requires control of society by the individual and control of the individual by society; in other words, democracy. And individual species ethics calls for world citizenship in the 21st century." 

▸ The World Education Forum (Dakar, Senegal, 2000) adopted Jomtien’s Declaration and the Delors Report as frameworks, and reaffirmed “basic learning needs in the best and fullest sense of the term (…) an education that includes learning to know, to do, to live together, and to be. It is an education geared to tapping each person’s talents and potential, and developing learners personalities, so that they can improve their lives and transform their societies.”

Human Development - as defined by UNDP - identifies three major areas of human learning: “The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living, and to be able to participate in the life of the community” (UNDP 2001).

▸ The Memorandum on Lifelong Learning of the European Commission (2000) stated: “The knowledge, skills and understanding that we learn as children and as young people in the family, at school, during training and at college or university will not last a lifetime. Integrating learning more firmly into adult life is a very important part of putting lifelong learning into practice, but it is, nevertheless, just one part of the whole. Lifelong learning sees all learning as a seamless continuum ‘from cradle to grave.’ High quality basic education for all. Basic education, followed by initial vocational education and training, should equip all young people with the new basic skills required in a knowledge-based economy. It should also ensure that they have ‘learnt to learn’ and that they have a positive attitude towards learning.” 

▸ The Key Competencies to be acquired by the end of compulsory education, according to the European Commission expert group following a survey devised by the Eurydice European Unit and sent to all European Union Member States in March 2002:
Category: social competencies
- Subcategory 1: participating actively in society with respect for its multicultural dimension and concern for equal opportunities
- Subcategory 2: communication competencies (including assertiveness, being able to stand up for oneself and maturity)
- Subcategory 3: being able to cooperate
Category: positive self-image
- Subcategory 4: having a positive self-image with a view to self-development (including self-confidence)
Category: being able to act and think independently
-
Subcategory 5: competencies in data acquisition and processing (including ICT)
-
Subcategory 6: problem-solving competencies
-
Subcategory 7: self-guidance and self-regulation (including a sense of responsibility)
-
Subcategory 8: being able to think and act critically and reflectively
Category: motivational competencies
-
Subcategory: having the courage to explore and being eager to learn
-
Subcategory: a sense of initiative
Category: mental agility
-
Subcategory 11: creativity and inventiveness
-
Subcategory 12: flexibility and adaptability
Category: functional competencies

-
Subcategory 13: linguistic competencies
-
Subcategory 14: technical competencies
Key Competencies:  A developing concept in general compulsory education, Eurydice. The information network on education in Europe, October 2002.

Ojo con traducciones y traductores

Rosa María Torres

Traduttore, traditore. La célebre frase alude al alto potencial de traición que tiene la traducción, a menudo capaz de distorsionar lo dicho o escrito por los autores. La educación es campo privilegiado de traición. Traiciones abundantes, menores y mayores, que contribuyen a enredar aún más un campo ya enredado en el que conviven viejas y nuevas modas y terminologías diversas, frecuentemente inconsistentes.

Es sabido que el campo educativo se caracteriza por un caos terminológico y por una subyacente falta de rigor conceptual. Si a esto agregamos lo que los traductores aportan de su propia cosecha, el problema se torna grave. Oradores y autores que eligen cuidadosamente las palabras y trabajan la redacción, pueden ver su esfuerzo aniquilado en manos de malos traductores que ni saben del tema ni se les ocurre consultar.

Documentos de gran importancia y circulación internacio­nal han encontrado en la traducción serios problemas de contenido y de comunicación, en torno a los cuales se han creado innecesarios debates y discrepancias que a menudo ni siquiera son tales. El informe de la Comisión Delors, titulado en inglés "Learning: The Treasure Within", fue traducido y publicado en español como "La educación encierra un tesoro", como si en español no existiese la palabra aprendizaje. La declaración resultante de la V Conferencia Mundial de Educación de Adultos (CONFINTEA V) "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" se tituló en español "Declaración de Hamburgo para la Educación de Adultos", sustituyendo además learning por educación en todo el documento. Un amigo, siendo alto funcionario de UNESCO, se encontró un buen día con que era autor de un nuevo término - "pérdidas edu­cativas" - inventado por una mala traductora y rápidamente incorporado a la jerga y los glosarios.

Los ejemplos que siguen, de la vida real, son parte de mi propia batalla con traductores y editores, y son tomados sobre todo de traduc­ciones español-inglés o inglés-español. 

▸ EDUCACION puede aparecer como INSTRUCCION, ENSEÑANZA, ENTRENAMIENTO o CAPACITACION.
▸ ENSEÑAR bien puede sustituirse por ORIENTAR.
▸ CONOCIMIENTOS pueden ser traducidos como simples HABILIDADES.
▸ Sociedad del CONOCIMIENTO se transforma fácilmente en Sociedad de la INFORMACION.
▸ OBJETIVOS da lo mismo que METAS.
▸ Usted se refiere a METODOS pero la traductora pone TECNICAS.
▸ Usted habla de MODALIDADES y ella las confunde con METODOS.
▸ METODOS pueden ser traducidos como ENFOQUES.
▸ Si al traductor no le gusta la palabra DOCENTE, MAESTRO o PROFESOR, se la cambia por ANIMADOR o FACILITADOR.
▸ Usted habla de EDUCACION BASICA pero la traductora pone EDUCACION PRIMARIA o EDUCACION ELEMENTAL.
▸ Usted escribe EDUCACION INICIAL, diferenciándola de EDUCACION PRE-ESCOLAR, pero el traductor no sabe la diferencia y prefiere PRE-ESCOLAR, que es lo que conoce.
▸ Si usted habla de MEDIOS, ellos le ponen MATERIALES.
▸ Usted se refiere a LIBROS DE LECTURA y ellos deciden que se trata de TEXTOS ESCOLARES.
▸ Usted elige PROGRAMA pero ellos optan por PROYECTO, o a la inversa.
▸ Usted escribe DESARROLLO INFANTIL, la traducción le devuelve el CUIDADO INFANTIL que usted quiso evitar.
▸ Usted pone MANEJO DEL CONTENIDO y se encuentra con MANIPULACION DEL CONTENIDO.
▸ Usted analiza MODALIDADES EDUCATIVAS NO-CONVENCIONALES pero le aparecen como MODALIDADES EDUCATIVAS NO-FORMALES.
▸ Usted habla del DEPARTAMENTO DE EDUCACION NO-FORMAL y le traducen como DEPARTAMENTO DE EDUCACION NO-ESTRUCTURADA.
▸ Usted pone MATEMATICAS; ellos CALCULO.
▸ Usted pone CURRICULO; ellos CONTENIDO.
▸ Usted pone CONTENIDOS; ellos MATERIAS o ASIGNATURAS.
▸ Usted pone PEDAGOGIA; ellos ENSEÑANZA o EDUCACION.▸ Usted pone EDUCACION; ellos ENSEÑANZA (muy común).
▸ Usted pone EDUCACION DE ADULTOS; ellos EDUCACION NO-FORMAL (o al revés), asumiendo que la educación de adultos es siempre no-formal y la no-formal siempre es de adultos.
▸ Usted pone ORGANIZACION COMUNITARIA; ellos ORGANISMO NO-GUBERNAMENTAL.
▸ Usted pone ESTADO; ellos GOBIERNO.
▸ Usted pone MOVIMIENTOS SOCIALES; ellos SOCIEDAD CIVIL. ▸ Usted pone SOCIEDA CIVIL; ellos le cambian por ONGs.
▸ Usted pone COMUNICACION; ellos MEDIOS DE COMUNICACION.
▸ Usted pone COMUNICACION EDUCATIVA; ellos EDUCACION COMUNITA­RIA.
▸ Usted pone LECTURA Y ESCRITURA; ellos LECTO-ESCRITURA.
▸ Usted pone ALFABETISMO; ellos ALFABETIZACION.
▸ Usted pone REDUCIR el analfabetismo; ellos ERRADICAR el analfabetismo.
▸ Usted pone COMUNIDAD DE APRENDIZAJE; ellos COMUNIDAD EDUCATIVA.
▸ Usted pone COMUNIDAD EDUCATIVA; ellos COMUNIDAD ESCOLAR.
▸ Usted pone SISTEMA ESCOLAR; ellos SISTEMA EDUCATIVO.
▸ Usted pone APRENDIZAJE; ellos RENDIMIENTO ESCOLAR.
▸ Usted pone APRENDIZAJE; ellos ESTUDIO.
▸ Usted pone APRENDIZAJE A LO LARGO DE LA VIDA; ellos EDUCACION A LO LARGO DE LA VIDA.
▸ Y, aunque le parezca mentira, usted pone APRENDIZAJE y... ¡ellos le pueden traducir como ENSEÑANZA!.

¿Qué sucedería si esto se aplicara al mundo de la Economía? Aquí no pasarían los traductores que confundie­ran OFERTA con DEMANDA, VALOR DE USO con VALOR DE CAMBIO, IMPORTACIONES con EXPORTACIONES, PRODUCTO INTERNO BRUTO con BALANZA DE PAGOS, ECONOMIA con ECONOME­TRIA, CRECIMIENTO con DESARROLLO, CAPITAL con DIVISAS, o que tradujeran MERCANCIA como MERCADERIA, o SUSTITUCION DE IMPORTACIONES como REEMPLAZO DE IMPORTACIONES, o CANASTA BASICA como CANASTA PRIMARIA ...

En Economía, cada palabra dice lo que dice. ¿Por qué la Educación ha de considerarse campo en donde todo vale, en el que da lo mismo Chana que Juana, en el que incluso los traductores pueden permitirse improvisar, sin esperar siquiera un control de fidelidad, ya que no de calidad?. 

Textos relacionados en OTRA∃DUCACION

» Sustainable Development Goals: Translation issues | Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible: Problemas de traducción
» Goal 4: Education - Sustainable Development Goals
» Dos malentendidos sobre la educación en Finlandia
 

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