SDG: Translation issues | ODS: Problemas de traducción


Rosa María Torres

Translation problems are frequent in international documents and very frequent in the field of education. In my professional career as a pedagogue and a linguist, I have dedicated numerous reflections and footnotes to this issue. Here is an old article, in Spanish: Ojo con traducciones y traductores.

I describe below some translation issues (English-Spanish) found in the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2015-2030.  They refer specifically to Goal 4 - quality education - and its 10 targets. I have commented on this goal in another post.
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Es frecuente encontrar problemas de traducción en documentos internacionales; es muy frecuente encontrarlos en documentos sobre educación. A lo largo de mi carrera profesional como pedagoga y lingüista he dedicado muchas reflexiones y notas de pie de página al tema de la traducción. Aquí un viejo artículo, que no pierde vigencia: Ojo con traducciones y traductores.

Abajo describo algunos problemas de traducción encontrados en los flamantes Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 2015-2030. Se refieren específicamente al Objetivo 4 - educación de calidad - y sus 10 metas. En otro post he comentado sobre este Objetivo 4.
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf


  Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2015-2030
Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) 2015-2030

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning.

Objetivo 4: Garantizar una educación inclusiva, equitativa y de calidad y promover oportunidades de aprendizaje durante toda la vida para todos.


» The Spanish text adds equitativa (equitable), not present in the English version. It refers to "promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all" where the English text refers to "promote lifelong learning". Lifelong Learning is a term already coined in the education field; the Spanish translation does not seem to be aware of this. 

» El texto en castellano agrega equitativa, que no está en el texto en inglés. Habla de "promover oportunidades de aprendizaje durante toda la vida para todos" donde el texto en inglés habla de "promote lifelong learning". Lifelong Learning (aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida) ya es un término acuñado en el mundo de la educación. En definitiva, este objetivo 4 debería decir: "Garantizar una educación inclusiva y de calidad, y promover el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida".
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes.

» Para 2030, velar por que todas las niñas y todos los niños terminen los ciclos de enseñanza primaria y secundaria, que ha de ser gratuita, equitativa y de calidad y producir resultados escolares pertinentes y eficaces.


»
The Spanish text is unnecessarily long and redundant. "Todas las niñas y todos los niños" (all the girls and all the boys) can be reduced to "Todos los niños y niñas". Relevant is translated as pertinent; they are not the same. Ensure, translated as velar, should read asegurar. Education is translated as teaching rather than as education. It is unnecessary to add cycle; "primary and secondary education" is enough.

»
El texto en castellano es innecesariamente largo y redundante. "Todas las niñas y todos los niños" puede reducirse a "Todos los niños y niñas". Se traduce relevant como pertinente; no son lo mismo. Ensure, traducido como velar, debe decir asegurar. Education se traduce como enseñanza; debe traducirse como educación: educación primaria, educación secundaria. No es necesario poner ciclos; basta con "educación primaria y secundaria".
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education.

» Para 2030, velar por que todas las niñas y todos los niños tengan acceso a servicios de atención y desarrollo en la primera infancia y a una enseñanza preescolar de calidad, a fin de que estén preparados para la enseñanza primaria.



»
The Spanish version uses long and redundant forms ("todas las niñas y todos los niños"). It translates education as teaching (enseñanza). Early childhood development should read desarrollo infantil, not "desarrollo en la primera infancia". "Enseñanza preescolar" is educación preescolar; "enseñanza primaria" is educación primaria.

»
El texto en castellano usa formas largas y redundantes ("todas las niñas y todos los niños"); traduce education como enseñanza en vez de educación. Early childhood development debe traducirse como desarrollo infantil, no como "desarrollo en la primera infancia". "Enseñanza preescolar" es educación preescolar; "enseñanza primaria" es educación primaria.
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.

» Para 2030, asegurar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad para todos los hombres y las mujeres a una formación técnica, profesional y superior de calidad, incluida la enseñanza universitaria.


»
The Spanish text chooses "asegurar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad" rather than the short option "asegurar acceso igualitario." 
» El texto en castellano habla de "asegurar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad" en vez recurrir a la vía corta "asegurar acceso igualitario".  
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship.

» Para 2030, aumentar sustancialmente el número de jóvenes y adultos que tienen las competencias necesarias, en particular técnicas y profesionales, para acceder al empleo, el trabajo decente y el emprendimiento.

 

» The Spanish text translates relevant as necesarias (relevantes) and vocational as profesionales (vocacionales).
» El texto en castellano traduce relevant como necesarias (en vez de relevantes) y vocational como profesionales (en vez de vocacionales).
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.

» Para 2030, eliminar las disparidades de género en la educación y garantizar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad de las personas vulnerables, incluidas las personas con discapacidad, los pueblos indígenas y los niños en situaciones de vulnerabilidad, a todos los niveles de la enseñanza y la formación profesional.

» All levels of education is translated as all levels of teaching ("todos los niveles de enseñanza"). Vocational training is translated as professional training ("formación profesional"). "Garantizar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad" may be reduced to "garantizar el acceso igualitario."
» All levels of education se traduce como "todos los niveles de enseñanza". Vocational training se traduce como "formación profesional". "Garantizar el acceso en condiciones de igualdad" puede acortarse como "garantizar el acceso igualitario".
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

» By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.

» Para 2030, garantizar que todos los jóvenes y al menos una proporción sustancial de los adultos, tanto hombres como mujeres, tengan competencias de lectura, escritura y aritmética.


» The text in Spanish translates literacy and numeracy as "competencias de lectura, escritura y aritmética" (reading, writing and arithmetic competencies). This selection of terms complicates farther an already complicated field, with many conceptualization and translation problems, introducing potential discussions around competencies and arithmetic. Surprisingly, the text adds al menos (at least), not present in the text in English, thus making the "substantial proportion" more confusing and even vaguer.

»
El texto en castellano traduce literacy and numeracy como "competencias de lectura, escritura y aritmética". Esta elección de términos complica un campo ya de por sí complicado, con muchos problemas de conceptualización y traducción, introduciendo potenciales debates en torno a competencias y aritmética. Sorprendentemente, el texto agrega al menos, que no está en el texto en inglés, haciendo aún más confusa y vaga la referencia a "proporción sustancial".
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf


» By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

» Para 2030, garantizar que todos los alumnos adquieran los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos necesarios para promover el desarrollo sostenible, entre otras cosas mediante la educación para el desarrollo sostenible y la adopción de estilos de vida sostenibles, los derechos humanos, la igualdad entre los géneros, la promoción de una cultura de paz y no violencia, la ciudadanía mundial y la valoración de la diversidad cultural y de la contribución de la cultura al desarrollo sostenible, entre otros medios.


»
The Spanish text refers to all students, not to all learners, and to theoretical and practical knowledge, not to knowledge and skills.

» El texto en castellano se refiere a todos los alumnos, no a all learners, y a conocimientos teóricos y prácticos, no a knowledge and skills.

Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

 » Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.

» Construir y adecuar instalaciones escolares que respondan a las necesidades de los niños y las personas discapacitadas y tengan en cuenta las cuestiones de género, y que ofrezcan entornos de aprendizaje seguros, no violentos, inclusivos y eficaces para todos.

» Education facilities is translated as school facilities ("instalaciones escolares"). Not all education facilities are school facilities.

» Education facilities se traduce como "instalaciones escolares" (en verdad, no toda instalación pensada con fines educatuvos es una instalación escolar).

Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf


» By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.

» Para 2020, aumentar sustancialmente a nivel mundial el número de becas disponibles para los países en desarrollo, en particular los países menos adelantados, los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo y los países de África, para que sus estudiantes puedan matricularse en programas de estudios superiores, incluidos programas de formación profesional y programas técnicos, científicos, de ingeniería y de tecnología de la información y las comunicaciones, en países desarrollados y otros países en desarrollo.


»
The whole paragraph is translated in a very loose way and with many more words than necessary. Least developed countries is translated as "países menos adelantados", when all other references to developed/developing are translated as "desarrollados/en desarrollo".
» Todo el párrafo se traduce de manera muy laxa y con muchas más palabras que las necesarias. Least developed countries ("los países menos desarrollados") se traduce como "los países menos adelantados", cuando todas las demás referencias se traducen como "desarrollados/en desarrollo".
Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals. - See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf

Main findings

  • Just one-third of countries have achieved all the measurable Education for All (EFA) goals.
  • In 2012, 121m children and adolescents were still out of school, down from 204m in 1999.
  • Half of countries have now achieved Universal Primary Enrolment and 10% more are close.
  • Poorest children are five times more likely not to complete primary school than richest.
- See more at: http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/report/2015/education-all-2000-2015-achievements-and-challenges#sthash.yYyYBh6R.PLvDOXjA.dpuf


» By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states.

» Para 2030, aumentar sustancialmente la oferta de maestros calificados, entre otras cosas mediante la cooperación internacional para la formación de docentes en los países en desarrollo, especialmente los países menos adelantados y los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo.


»
Maestros is often associated to primary school and profesores to secondary and tertiary education in many countries. Educadores or docentes may be more general terms.
» Maestros se asocia en muchos países a educadores de primaria. Profesores, en cambio, se relaciona a quienes enseñan en la educación secundaria o universitaria. Educadores o docentes son términos más generalizables. 
Textos relacionados en OTRA∃DUCACION

Aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida
De alumno a aprendiz
Mujeres, indígenas y discapacitados
Ojo con traducciones y traductores
Madre Tierra
Sumak Kawsay: Voces y saberes de la Amazonía ecuatoriana

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