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Los Laureados con el Premio WISE a la Educación


Rosa María Torres


(Text in English: WISE Prize for Education Laureates: Bottom-up Innovators

  Premio WISE a la Educación 2011: Sir Fazle Hasan Abed (Bangladesh) 
 

Premio WISE a la Educación 2012: Dr. Madhav Chavan (India). .

Premio WISE a la Educación 2013: Vicky Colbert (Colombia). 


"El Premio WISE a la Educación es la primera distinción en su clase en reconocer a una persona o a un equipo de hasta seis personas, por una contribución destacada a la educación en el mundo. Establecido en 2011 por Su Excelencia Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Presidenta de la Fundación Qatar, el Premio fija su estándar de excelencia en educación, confiriéndole el mismo estatus que otras áreas para las cuales existen premios, tales como literatura, paz y economía. Los Laureados reciben un premio monetario de USD 500,000 y una medalla de oro. El Laureado con el Premio es considerado un modelo y un embajador de la educación a nivel global." (Nuestra traducción del original en inglés).

¿Cuáles son las innovaciones educativas que llaman la atención de la comunidad educativa global en el momento actual? Los tres primeros ganadores del Premio WISE a la Educación (2011, 2012, 2013) y sus respectivos programas comparten varias características en común. Una de ellas: son innovadores e innovaciones de abajo hacia arriba, que empezaron pequeñas y locales, se hicieron nacionales y luego se han expandido a nivel internacional a lo largo de un período sostenido de tiempo.

Mi conocimiento personal de dos de estos programas, BRAC y Escuela Nueva, a través de visitas, investigación y seguimiento por varios años, permite un mejor acercamiento a la naturaleza y al proceso seguido por estos modelos educativos inspiradores. 

BRAC - Bangladesh

El Premio WISE 2011 a la Educación fue otorgado Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, fundador y director de BRAC, "la organización de desarrollo más grande del mundo". Creada en 1972 en una aldea rural remota, BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee- Comité Bangladeshi para el Desarrollo Rural) llega hoy a cerca de 135 millones de personas en 11 países en Asia y Africa, así como en Haití, en el Caribe. 

BRAC es una ONG no vinculada únicamente a la educación. Su enfoque holístico y multifacético de desarrollo abarca varias áreas y temas: microfinanzas, educación, servicios de salud, servicios legales, empoderamiento comunitario, y empresas sociales. La educación ha sido un área clave y muy exitosa.

Las llamadas Escuelas Primarias No-Formales del BRAC, que se hicieron internacionalmente famosas en los 1990s, se han expandido como un modelo viable y replicable de educación primaria. En todos estos años, BRAC ha desarrollado un sistema educativo completo, que incluye hoy la Universidad BRAC.


Pratham - India

The Premio WISE 2012 a la Educación fue otorgado al Dr. Madhav Chavan, co-fundador y director de Pratham, la ONG más grande de la India dedicada a la educación. La misión de Pratham se resume como "Cada niño en la escuela y aprendiendo bien". Fue creada en 1994 con el fin de asegurar educación pre-escolar a niños que viven en tugurios de Mumbai. Voluntarios comunitarios fueron reclutados, capacitados, provistos de materiales de enseñanza, y alentados a organizar clases en cualquier espacio disponible en la comunidad (templos, oficinas, domicilios particulares, etc.).

Pratham Balwadis
(clases de pre-escolar) se multiplicaron en otras localidades. Hoy, Pratham llega a millones de niños y niñas en áreas rurales y urbanas en 19 de los 28 estados del país, con desarrollo infantil, apoyo escolar para niños dentro y fuera de la escuela, reinserción de niños en el sistema escolar, clases de computación, capacitación vocacional para jóvenes y programas especiales para niños trabajadores y vulnerables.

En 2002-2003, Pratham adoptó un enfoque de área (intervención en toda la comunidad). La Técnica Aprender a Leer (L2R) de Pratham es una técnica de aprendizaje acelerado destinada a enseñar a leer en 4-8 semanas a niños que están tanto dentro como fuera de la escuela. El Informe Anual de Estado del Arte de la Educación (Annual Status of Education Report - ASER), facilitado por Pratham, es la encuesta más grande realizada en la India por personas externas al gobierno. Registra matrícula así como niveles de lectura y artitmética en niños de entre 6 y 14 años. 

Escuela Nueva - Colombia

El Premio WISE 2013 a la Educación fue otorgado a Vicky Colbert, fundadora y directora de la Fundación Escuela Nueva, y co-creadora (junto con el profesor Oscar Mogollón) del modelo Escuela Nueva (EN) en sus inicios.

EN se inició como proyecto local en 1975 (inspirada en la Escuela Unitaria de la UNESCO), cubriendo unas pocas escuelas públicas en áreas rurales, y pasando luego a ser un programa regular dentro del Ministerio de Educación de Colombia. En 1985, EN fue adoptada por el gobierno colombiano como política nacional para universalizar la educación primaria en las áreas rurales. 

EN ha mostrado que la escuela multigrado o unidocente (uno o dos profesores a cargo de todos los alumnos y niveles en una sola aula de clase), si se le dan condiciones apropiadas y es tratada como sistema multigrado, puede convertirse en una alternativa de calidad antes que en una "solución temporaria para los pobres".

De hecho: Colombia ha sido el único país en América Latina en que los estudiantes en áreas rurales han logrado mejores resultados escolares que en las areas urbanas, según las pruebas aplicadas por el Laboratorio Latinoamericano de Evaluación de la Calidad de la Educación (LLECE) coordinado por la oficina regional de la UNESCO. EN también ha mostrado que, incluso con muchos problemas y altibajos, es posible desarrollar una innovación radical y significativa dentro de las estructuras gubernamentales y de la educación formal.

La Fundación Escuela Nueva fue creada en 1987 a fin de ayudar a fortalecer el programa, adaptarlo a las áreas urbanas, y expandirlo fuera de Colombia (el modelo EN se ha experimentado en 16 países). A lo largo de los años, EN ha recibido numerosos premios internacionales, incluido un Premio WISE en 2009.

¿Qué tienen en común estos programas educativos? 


¿Qué tienen en común estos programas educativos? Dos de ellos están en Asia, en dos de los "países más populosos del mundo", donde los problemas educativos son masivos y extremadaente complejos. Otro está en América Latina, en la comparativamente pequeña Colombia, conocida por su historia de violencia, inequidad social y conflicto. Tres "países en desarrollo" muy diferentes, cada uno de ellos único y muy específico dentro de su propia región. 

Los tres programas: 

» Tienen una larga historia y un largo proceso detrás: BRAC se inició en 1972, Escuela Nueva en 1975, Pratham en 1994.

» Empezaron como proyectos locales y pequeños
, antes de expandirse y convertirse en modelos nacionales y luego internacionales. Este enfoque de abajo hacia arriba, junto al esfuerzo de largo plazo, han sido indudablemente claves en su éxito y sustentabilidad.

»
Emergieron como alternativas educativas para los pobres y para algunos de los grupos más desaventajados en sus respectivas sociedades. BRAC y Escuela Nueva echaron raíces en las zonas rurales. Sus modelos educatvos fueron diseñados para las condiciones específicas de las áreas rurales.

» Sirven a la infancia, con escuela primaria en BRAC y Escuela Nueva, y de desarrollo infantil y educación inicial en el caso de Pratham. BRAC empezó centrándose en las niñas, dada la gran brecha de género en la matrícula y la asistencia a la educación primaria en Bangladesh en ese momento.

» Se expandieron gradualmente
más allá de sus visiones, misiones y alcances originales, prestando atención a las necesidades mostradas por la realidad y por el propio proceso de aprendizaje. Se aventuraron en nuevos campos, cubrieron otras edades y niveles. Todos ellos tienen clara la importancia de involucrar a los padres de familia, a las familias y a las comunidades, y han trabajado consistentemente en esa dirección.

» Se centran en asegurar lo básico: lectura, escritura y cálculo, supervivencia, habilidades sociales y para la vida, empoderamiento familiar y comunitario.

» Dan gran importancia a la pedagogía y a la transformación pedagógica,
mucho más que a la infraestructura, la administración o las tecnologías.

»
Han sido desarrollados por ONGs, a excepción de Escuela Nueva, que fue desarrollada dentro de las estructuras del Ministerio de Educación. En este caso, la ONG ha jugado un papel fundamental de acompañamiento, sostenimiento y promoción de la innovación.

» Bajo costo:
Aprovechan las ventajas de todos los recursos humanos y materiales disponibles en la escuela, en la familia y en la comunidad. 

»
Han recibido apoyo de varias agencias internacionales, especialmente de las Naciones Unidas, así como del Banco Mundial y otros bancos y organismos regionales. 

»
Han recibido gran reconocimiento tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. 

»
Curiosamente, e importante de notar: todos ellos tienen un perfil tecnológico bajo. Las tecnologías no son el factor clave. Las personas, la participación, el voluntariado, la relación escuela-comunidad, y la transformación pedagógica están en el centro. 


Doha, Qatar, 30 de Octubre de 2013
WISE Education Summit 2013
 

Ver también en este blog:


Rosa María Torres and Manzoor Ahmed, Reaching the Unreached: Non-formal Approaches and Universal Primary Education  
Rosa María Torres, Escuela Nueva: An innovation within formal education (Colombia)
Rosa María Torres, "Antes, aquí era Escuela Vieja" (Colombia)
Rosa María Torres, On Innovation and Change in Education

WISE Prize for Education Laureates: Bottom-up Innovators


Rosa María Torres


(Texto en español: Los Laureados con el Premio WISE a la Educación)


2011 WISE Prize for Education Laureate: Sir Fazle Hasan Abed (Bangladesh)

2012 WISE Prize Laureate,
Dr. Madhav Chavan (India). Interview.
 
2013 WISE Prize for Education Laureate:
Vicky Colbert (Colombia). Interview.




"The WISE Prize for Education is the first distinction of its kind to recognize an individual or a team of up to six people working together for an outstanding, world-class contribution to education. Established in 2011 by Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Chairperson of Qatar Foundation, the WISE Prize for Education sets the standard for excellence in education, giving it similar status to other areas for which international prizes already exist, such as literature, peace and economics. The Laureate receives a monetary prize of $500,000 (US) and a gold medal. The WISE Prize for Education Laureate is honored as a global role model and ambassador for education."


What are the educational innovations that draw the attention of the global education community at this point in time? The first three winners of the WISE Prize for Education (2011, 2012, 2013) and their respective education programs share several common characteristics. One of them: they are bottom-up innovators and innovations, that have started small and local, have become national and later expanded internationally over a long and sustained period of time. My personal knowledge of two of them, BRAC and Escuela Nueva, through study visits, research and follow up over many years, provides some insights into the specific nature and process of these inspiring educational models and experiences.   

BRAC - Bangladesh

The 2011 WISE Prize for Education was awarded to Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, Founder and Chairman of BRAC, "the largest development organization in the world." Created in 1972 in a remote rural village, BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) reaches today nearly 135 million people in 11 countries in Asia and Africa, and also in Haiti in the Caribbean.

BRAC is not only an education-related NGO. Its holistic and multifaceted approach to development covers various areas and issues: microfinance, education, healthcare, legal services, community empowerment, and social enterprises. Education has been one of its key and most successful areas.

So-called BRAC Non-Formal Primary Schools, which became internationally renowned in the 1990s, have spread as a viable and replicable primary school model. Starting with ver modest primary schools, BRAC has developed a whole education system, that includes today BRAC University.


Pratham - India

The 2012 WISE Prize for Education was awarded to Dr. Madhav Chavan, Co-founder and CEO of Pratham, the largest education NGO in India. Pratham's mission is "Every child in school and learning well". It was created in 1994 to provide pre-school education to children living in the slums of Mumbai. Community volunteers were recruited, trained, provided basic teaching-learning materials, and encouraged to organize classes in any space available in the communities (temples, offices, people’s houses, etc.).

Pratham Balwadis
(pre-school classes) multiplied in other locations. Today Pratham reaches millions of children in rural and urban areas in 19 of the country’s 28 states, through early childhood education, learning support to in-school and out-of-school children, mainstreaming of out-of-school children, computer literacy, vocational training for youth and special programs for vulnerable and working children.

An area approach (whole community interventions) was adopted in 2002-2003. Pratham’s Learn to Read (L2R) technique is an accelerated learning technique targeted at teaching both in-school and out-of-school children how to read in 4- 8 weeks. Facilitated by Pratham, The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) is the largest survey undertaken in India by people outside the government. It measures the enrollment as well as the reading and arithmetic levels of children in the age group of 6-14 years.

Escuela Nueva - Colombia

The 2013 WISE Prize for Education
was awarded to Vicky Colbert, founder and director of Fundación Escuela Nueva, and co-creator (together with Prof. Oscar Mogollón) of the Escuela Nueva (EN) model from its start.

EN was initiated as a local project in 1975, covering a few public schools in rural areas, and grew as a regular program within Colombia's Ministry of Education. In 1985, EN was adopted by the Colombian government as a national policy to universalize quality primary education in rural areas.

EN has shown that the multigrade school (one or two teachers in charge of all levels in a single classroom), if given appropriate conditions and treated as a multigrade system, can become a quality alternative rather than a "poor temporary solution for the poor". In fact, Colombia has been the only country in Latin America where students in rural areas have shown higher learning achievements than children in urban areas when UNESCO's LLECE tests were applied. EN has also shown that, even with many problems and ups and downs, radical and meaningful innovation can be developed within government structures and within formal, mainstream education.

The Escuela Nueva Foundation was created in 1987 in order to help strengthen the program, adapt it to urban areas, and expand it to other countries (the EN model has been experimented in 16 countries). Over the years, EN has received numerous international awards, including a WISE Award in 2009.

What do these three education programs have in common? 


What do these three education programs have in common? Two of them are located in Asia, in two of the "nine most populous countries" on earth, where education issues and problems are massive and extremely complex. The other one is located in Latin America, in comparatively small Colombia, affected by long-term violence, social inequity and conflict. Three very different "developing countries", each of them unique and specific within its own region.

The three programs:

» Have a long history and process behind: BRAC started in 1972, Escuela Nueva in 1975, Pratham in 1994.

» Started local and small
, before expanding and becoming national and later international models. This bottom-up approach, plus the long term effort, have been undoubtedly key to their sustainability and success.

»
Emerged as educational alternatives for the poor and some of the most disadvantaged groups in their respective societies. BRAC and Escuela Nueva were rooted in rural areas. Their respective education models were tailored for the specific conditions of rural areas.

» Serve children, through primary education in the case of BRAC and Escuela Nueva, and through early childhood and pre-school education in the case of Pratham. BRAC started targetting girls, given the huge gender gap in primary education enrollment and attendance in Bangladesh at that time.

» Expanded gradually
beyond their original visions, missions and scopes, paying attention to the needs revealed by reality and by the learning process itself. They ventured into new areas, covered new ages and levels. All of them were aware of the importance of involving parents, families and communities, and have worked consistently in that direction.

» Focus on ensuring the basics: reading, writing and numeracy, survival, life and social skills, family and community empowerment.

» Give great importance to pedagogy and to pedagogical transformation,
much more than to infrastructure, administration or technologies.

»
Have been developed by NGOs, with the exception of Escuela Nueva, which was built within the existing ministry of education structure. In this case, the NGO has played an indispensable role in accompanying, sustaining and promoting the innovation.

» Are low cost
: they take advantage of all human and material resources available in the school, the family and the community.

»
Have been supported by several international agencies, especially from the United Nations as well as from the World Bank and other regional banks and organizations.

»
Have received much recognition both at national and international levels.

»
Curiously enough and worth noticing: all of them have a rather low technological profile. Technologies are not the driving force. Human beings, participation, volunteering, school-community relationship, pedagogical transformation, are the key.


Doha, 30 October 2013
WISE Education Summit 2013
 

See also:

Rosa María Torres and Manzoor Ahmed, Reaching the Unreached: Non-formal Approaches and Universal Primary Education  
Rosa María Torres, Escuela Nueva: An innovation within formal education (Colombia)
Rosa María Torres, "Antes, aquí era Escuela Vieja" (Colombia)
Rosa María Torres, On Innovation and Change in Education 
Rosa María Torres, The Green, the Blue, the Red and the Pink Schools
Rosa María Torres, On Learning Anytime, Anywhere (WISE 2011)
Rosa María Torres, Knowldedge-based international aid: Do we want it? Do we need it?

"Antes, aquí era Escuela Vieja"


Rosa María Torres

Visita a la Escuela Nueva "Antonio Villavicencio" Nº 29,
El Jordán, Departamento del Valle, Colombia, 29/05/91



En 1991, siendo Oficial de Educación en la oficina de UNICEF en Quito, organicé una visita de estudio al "Programa Escuela Nueva" de Colombia, programa dirigido a las escuelas multigrado y ya entonces convertido en política nacional para las zonas rurales en el país vecino. La delegación ecuatoriana se integró con nueve funcionarios del Ministerio de Educación, además de yo misma, como funcionaria de UNICEF.

Había leído sobre Escuela Nueva y consideraba que en ese programa podíamos encontrar claves importantes para fortalecer y renovar la educación multigrado (unidocente) en el Ecuador. Nuevamente, en 2003, siendo Ministra de Educación y Culturas, organicé una visita a Escuela Nueva por parte de un grupo de funcionarios del Ministerio, esta vez en el marco de una propuesta que había elaborado como parte del paquete de políticas a desarrollar durante mi gestión: la creación de un Sistema de Educación Bi-docente de Calidad (dos profesores en vez de uno, en cada escuela unidocente, trabajando en equipo).

Lastimosamente, ninguna de las dos iniciativas prosperó. Pese a su alta presencia en el país, el gobierno ecuatoriano nunca se ha interesado en la educación unidocente o multigrado; siempre la ha visto como educación de segunda, pobre para pobres, transitoria, mientras llega la escuela graduada, con un profesor o profesora para cada grado. Entretanto, Escuela Nueva ha seguido avanzando en Colombia, se ha extendido a otros países y ha venido recibiendo innumerables reconocimientos y premios como modelo de educación de calidad para las zonas rurales y para los más pobres.
El texto que sigue lo he tomado del pequeño libro que escribí con observaciones e impresiones de la visita en 1991: Escuela Nueva: Una innovación desde el Estado, Colección Educación, Nº 2, Instituto Fronesis, Quito, 1991.


Después de casi tres horas de recorrido, el bus se detiene. Está atorado, nos comunica el chofer. La tupida lluvia del día anterior ha dejado el camino en lodo puro, y no sube más. Hay pues que seguir a pie unos cuatro kilómetros. Lo cierto es que hay que llegar. Los niños, los maestros, los padres de familia, la comunidad entera están esperando la llegada de los visitantes.

Media hora más adelante, Emilio y yo nos detenemos junto a una casa donde padre e hijo, cubiertos de lodo y paja hasta las orejas,se encuentran en plena acción de construir un agregado en el segundo piso. Resulta, en la charla, que Don Juan y Doña Martha - quien se acerca enseguida - son padres de familia de la escuela.
- "Dicen que hay un festejo. Así pasaron comunicando", me informa Don Juan. "Ya nos limpiamos y vamos".
El, jornalero. Ella, ama de casa. Tienen cinco hijos y viven desde hace siete años en El Jordán. El, ahora desocupado, se lamenta de lo difícil que se ha vuelto conseguir trabajo.

Tres de los hijos van a la escuela de la comunidad, la Escuela Nueva "Antonio Villavicencio" Nº 29. Horas después, ya en la escuela, veremos llegar a Don Juan y a Doña Martha, bien vestidos y peinados, y sabremos que el Presidente del Gobierno Escolar, Carlos Jesús Ordóñez, recientemente elegido, es uno de sus hijos.

Les pido que me cuentan cómo es la escuela. Don Juan empieza, Doña Martha le ayuda.
- "Allí, los mismos niños tienen que quebrar cabeza. Les toca pensar para estudiar. Antes no era así".

- "En la escuela de antes a uno le quedaba más fácil, porque uno copiaba. Aquí es más trabajoso porque tienen que pensar mucho". 
- "No hay calificaciones. No hay castigo. Hasta que hagan la tarea están".
- "En un año avanzan mucho. Si un niño es muy capacitado, lo adelantan. Si va lento, lo esperan".
- "Al principio, no estábamos de acuerdo. Nos parecía algo raro. Que se pasaban jugando, decían. Mandaban a los niños a atrapar animales. Después los abrían. ¡Quién sabe qué cosas!".
- "Nosotros estuvimos en la escuela tradicional. Pero hoy ya estamos bautizados con esa escuela. Escuela Nueva se le llama".
- "Ellos están muy amañados ya. Cuando comenzaron, les parecía muy trabajoso. Es que tienen que reventar cabeza". 
Nos despedimos. En el trecho final del camino nos unimos a un grupo de padres y madres. Vestidas con sus mejores galas, apresuran el paso. Los hombres van cargando al hombro tres guitarras desvencijadas.

La escuela 

Aparece finalmente la escuela, en un recodo del camino. Afuera, el pequeño rótulo con el nombre. Al entrar, en el corredor, un mural del que copio:

Entendimiento
Sociabilidad
Creatividad
Unidad
Entusiasmo
Libertad
Aprendizaje

Novedad
Universalidad
Entereza
Virtudes
Actividad

Estas y más cosas experimentaré en esta visita a la que me enfrento con ganas de ver con ojos buenos, nuevos, no condicionados.

Al entrar al aula está ya instalado el acto de recepción con los que han ido llegando antes. Hernando Gélvez, Coordinador Nacional de Escuela Nueva, quien nos acompaña en la visita, se ha sentado junto con cico niños grandes, en su pupitre colectivo. Mis compatriotas de la delegación ecuatoriana están alineados frente a la pizarra, ya empezando a presentarse uno por uno. Intuyo entre las caras todavía desconocidas al profesor (sé que solo hay uno, y que hace de director, conserje y todo), y a alguien más que supongo del Comité de Padres de Familia.

Mientras la presentación individual sigue su curso, en la acostumbrada fila india, me concentro en registrar con la vista cada detalle.

El aula es pequeña, con banco y mesa para parejas, están organizados formando grupos de dos o tres, de modo que en cada grupo hay entre cuatro y ocho niños sentados. Los niños, vestidos con un pulover gris claro, son de todas las edades y tamaños: desde muy pequeñitos hasta dos o tres semiadolescentes.

Las parejas están tapizadas con objetos diversos. En las dos esquinas del fondo, con sus respectivos carteles colgados en lo alto, están el RINCON DE SOCIALES y el RINCON DE CIENCIAS, cada uno repleto de coas que llaman la atención e invitan a curiosear de cerca. En el centro de la pared hay una lámina grande que dice MURAL DE ACTIVIDADES DEL MES y que, según sé después, está bajo la responsabilidad del Comité de Bienestar. En él se registran, con tarjetas móviles, las principales actividades previstas y cumplidas por cada comité, mes a mes.

En una pared lateral hay un botiquín y junto a él una pizarra pequeña con el título AUTOCONTROL DE ASISTENCIA: contiene verticalmente la nómina de los alumnos y horizontalmente los días del mes. Según me explican después, son los propios alumnos quienes registran su asistencia.

A mi lado, junto a la puerta de entrada, está colgada una repisa de cartón con casilleros. Tiene el título NUESTROS COMPROMISOS. Dentro de cada casillero hay una hoja escrita a mano por algún niño o niña y encabezada con el nombre de algún Comité.

Soy la última en presentarme. Solo acierto a pedir a los niños que nos cuenten de su escuela, que nos digan cómo se sienten en ella. Debe sonar formal, pero es un pedido auténtico, cargado de emoción y expectativa.

Hernando les pide que vayan alzando la mano, a medida que él va nombrando los niveles. Así podemos saber que, de los 36 niños presentes, 3 están en primer nivel, 11 en segundo, 10 en tercero, 5 en cuarto y 7 en quinto. (Nota: En Colombia, la escuela primaria tiene 5 niveles o grados).

Ahora, Hernando aborda el tema del Gobierno Escolar. Empieza preguntando quién es el Presidente. Se para un chico delgado, nervioso. Se le pide que cuente cómo fue su elección, con cuántos votos ganó, en qué nivel está.
- "Todos los alumnos hicieron una votación ...... Gané con 19 votos ...... Yo estoy en cuarto nivel".
Tres oraciones dichas con angustiantes pausas entre una y otra. El muchacho está paralizado por los nervios. Hernando trata de salvar el trance con tino, pide a los demás que ayuden a contar cómo fue la elección. Las respuestas, de todos modos, salen forzadas. En nuestra segunda visita a una Escuela Nueva, dos días mas tarde, y ante una situación similar, llegaré a pensar que es desmedido el énfasis y el tiempo dedicado en estas visitas (y quizás en el propio Programa) al Gobierno Escolar, sobre todo porque se somete a los alumnos a un interrogatorio que, a partir de las mismas preguntas, obtiene las mismas previsibles respuestas.

Ahora empiezan a pararse y explicar lo que hacen los restantes miembros del Gobierno Escolar. Empezamos con los Ayudantes de Nivel. El de segundo nivel dice que su función es "poner cuidado a las Guías y avisar cuando están dañadas". El de tercero dice que se encarga de "prestar las Guías y colocar las faltas en el Autocontrol de Asistencia. Cuando alguien llega atrasado, le borro la falta". El de cuarto dice que le toca "colocar las Guías en el puesto y ver la asistencia". Finalmente, el de quinto dice: "Presto las Guías y oriento el trabajo a los demás".

Ahora hablan los Líderes, explicando las funciones de sus respectivos Comités (cada escuela decide qué comités quiere tener):
- Huerta: "Limpiar la huerta, echar agua, traer abono. Ahora tenemos sembrado repollo, cebolla, tomate y zanahoria. Todo esto nos sirve para nuestro restaurante escolar".
- Aseo: "Limpiar los baños, las ventanas".

- Deporte: "Arreglamos hace poco el pasamanos para Educación Física y estamos organizando ahora un paseo a Cali, al que va a ir toda la escuela". 
- Bienestar: "Nosotros izamos las banderas".

- Cruz Roja: "Hay que echar agua al filtro, surtir el botiquín".

- Biblioteca: "Prestar los libros".
- "¿Cuántos de ustedes han leído libros de la biblioteca?", pregunta Hernando. La mayoría alza la mano.

- "¿Qué títulos han leído?". Y empiezan a responder uno a uno:

El coronel no tiene quién le escriba.
La Vorágine.
El Quijote.
La Leyenda del Dorado.
Ciervo sin tierra.
Manantial de lectura.
Alicia en el País de las Maravillas.
Leamos A, B y C.

Esperanza, Líder de la Biblioteca, aprovecha para informar a los visitantes que la biblioteca funciona con dos turnos - 8 a 12 am y 2 a 6 pm - y que hay un plazo de cinco días para devolver los libros.

Hemos estado ya más de una hora en este lugar y tomo conciencia de que hasta este momento no he podido saber a ciencia cierta quién es el profesor. Los niños se desenvuelven solos. Ningún adulto habla por ellos, nadie les "sopla", nadie les corrige, nadie les interrumpe.

Fantástico. Sencillamente excepcional. Y esto es lo que seguirá ocurriendo en el resto de la visita, en el resto del día. No puedo dejar de sorprenderme y admirarlo. De hecho, éste será el comentario unánima de nuestra delegación en la reunión nocturna de evaluación de la jornada.

Continuará... (Los niños nos muestran su escuela)


Para saber más sobre Escuela Nueva
» Colombia Aprende: Escuela Nueva en Colombia
» Vicky Colbert, Mejorando el acceso y la calidad de la educación para el sector rural pobre: El caso de Escuela Nueva en Colombia (1999)
» BID: Homenaje a Oscar Mogollón, fundador de la Escuela Activa y co-creador de Escuela Nueva 
» Active Schools: Our convictions for Improving the Quality of Education, by Oscar Mogollón and Marina Solano de Mogollón, AED/FH1360, Washington, D.C., 2011.
» Fundación Escuela Nueva
» La escuela rural como laboratorio de innovación educativa, El País, 3 nov. 2013
» Lo que el mundo está aprendiendo de las escuelas rurales colombianas, BBC Mundo, 2 enero 2014

Textos relacionados en este blog
» Rosa María Torres, Escuela Nueva: An innovation within formal education (Colombia)

Escuela Nueva: An innovation within formal education (Colombia)


Rosa María Torres




This article was published by IBE-UNESCO Prospects (second issue of 1993). I wrote it while working as a Senior Education Adviser at UNICEF Headquarters in New York, and following a study visit (1991) to the Escuela Nueva Program together with an official delegation from the Ecuadorian government. The article looks at the evolution of EN from its creation in 1975 to the early 1990s, period in which it expanded in Colombia, became a national policy for the rural areas and a regular program within Colombia's Ministry of Education. We also discuss the innovation survival, scaling up and replicability.
In 1987, the Escuela Nueva Foundation was created by the team that developed the EN model in the 1970s, in order to help strengthen the program, diversify and adapt the model to urban areas (Escuela Activa Urbana), and promote its expansion to other countries. The EN model has been experimented in 16 countries. Over the years, it has received numerous international awards, including a WISE Award in 2009 and the 2013 WISE Prize for Education given to Vicky Colbert, co-creator of the EN model.


INTRODUCTION


Colombia's Escuela Nueva (EN) 'New School' Program has become an international reference. UNESCO, the World Bank and UNICEF have lent their support to the program and promoted it. UNESCO described it as "an experience of unquestionable international value." The World Bank recommends disseminating its lessons among education planners and policy-makers. Study missions visit Colombia to find out more about it. Several countries are interested in replicating it.

What makes EN so special? 1) the fact that it is an innovation within the formal school system; 2) the long time over which it has evolved; 3) the system approach adopted; 4) the focus on the curriculum and pedagogy; and 5) its results.

We examine here these five points and conclude with some considerations about the program's survival and potential for replicability in other contexts.

1. ESCUELA NUEVA: AN ALTERNATIVE WITHIN FORMAL EDUCATION

It is common to associate educational innovation with NGOs, grassroot organizations, out-of-school or non-formal education. Many people think Escuela Nueva is a NGO program, like other primary or basic education programs highlighted by international organizations (such as BRAC's non-formal primary schools in Bangladesh). However, perhaps EN's greatest merit is that it is a transformative innovation within the formal, public, mainstream education system. Colombia's EN shows that systemic innovation is possible within government structures.  

2. ESCUELA NUEVA: FROM LOCAL PROJECT TO NATIONAL POLICY

"Pilot projects" have lost credibility. Many pilot projects remain local experiments. At the same time, we also see massive-scale programs rushing without going through a gradual process. Escuela Nueva has grown from a micro experiment to a national education policy.

UNESCO's Unitary School model (1960s)

EN emerged from the Unitary School model promoted by UNESCO in 1961 at a Ministers of Education meeting held in Geneva and adopted in several "developing countries". The Unitary School was characterized by:
a) presence of one teacher in the school,
b) automatic promotion,
c) active learning, enabling children to learn at their own pace,
d) instructional cards ("fichas") for the teacher to work with various groups at the same time,
e) provision of a complete primary education cycle, and
f) application in disperse areas, with low population density.


In Colombia, the first Unitary School was set up at the Instituto Superior de Educación Rural (ISER) in Pamplona, department of Santander, under UNESCO Project 1 for Primary Education. The teacher in charge of that school was Oscar Mogollón, a public school teacher who would later become Escuela Nueva's National Coordinator at the Ministry of Education (See Note below)
- By the mid-1960s, the small unitary school had multiplied into 150 schools. 
- In 1967, the government adopted the Unitary School methodology for all single-teacher (multigrade) schools in the country. A Manual was published and Departments of Education started to train rural teachers in this methodology.
- In 1975, the Escuela Nueva Program was created on the basis of the Unitary School model and experience.
Oscar Mogollón, together with Vicky Colbert and Beryl Levinger, from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), worked on the EN model.
-
Between 1975 and 1978, with USAID support, EN was implemented in 500 schools in three departments. Later, with the support of the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB),
private Colombian organizations such as the Coffee Growers Association, and FES (Foundation for Higher Education), the program expanded to 3,000 schools. 
- Between 1982 and 1986 EN expanded to the Pacific Coast. Learning Guides were adapted for this region, with UNICEF technical and financial co-operation.

- In 1985, the Colombian Government adopted EN as a strategy to achieve universal rural primary education. By then, there were 8,000 EN schools in the country.
- In the late 1970s and early 1980s the government negotiated a loan with the World Bank in order to expand and improve basic education in rural areas. In 1987, a second loan assisted the Universalization Plan. The EN program received educational materials, teacher training, sanitary installations, furniture and school improvements (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990). Investments were expanded until the mid 1990s.
- Since 1987 there was a rapid expansion. The program reached 17,984 schools by 1989.
- In 1990 EN received the Simón Bolívar national award. Internationally, it was chosen by the World Bank as one of the three most important basic education models for rural areas.

- In 1991, 20,000 of the 27,000 rural schools were involved in the program, with an estimated coverage of one million children. 
3. ESCUELA NUEVA: A SYSTEM APPROACH

Escuela Nueva is not a methodology. It is an integrated system that combines four components: (a) curriculum, (b) training, (c) administration, and (d) community. None of these components stands on its own. Their interrelationship is what makes the model both coherent and feasible.

(a) The curriculum
Emphasis is placed on the curriculum. Key features include: active learning, learning materials known as "Learning Guides", Study Corners, School Library, School Government, and Flexible Promotion.

The EN Program was devised for rural areas, primary education (five years in Colombia), and multigrade teaching (one or two teachers in charge of all grades). Children study in small groups using Learning Guides, supplied by the State free of charge. The Guides are organized by subjects (mathematics, natural science, social studies, and language) and by grade (from second to fifth grade; there are no guides for the first grade). They are designed for self-instruction, with graded activities and detailed instructions, so that students can work to a large extent on their own, helping one another. This saves teachers' time, reduces their burden, lessens the need for highly qualified teaching staff, and enables students to progress at their own pace. Teachers are trained to adapt the Guides to the specific characteristics of the children and the local environment -- although they seldom do it.

The Study Corners are arranged by field of study and comprise objects collected or made by the children or provided by the parents and the community.

Each school has a small Library: the idea is to encourage reading among children, teachers, families and the community. The school libraries have a stock of about 70 books, including reference books by subject, reference works (encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases), literature, and materials on community-related topics.

The School Government is a student council responsible for organizing children's school activities. Its purpose is to involve children in school management, initiate them in civic and democratic behavior, and foster attitudes of cooperation and solidarity. The School Government comprises a President, Vice-President, Secretary, Committee Leaders and Assistants for each grade, is elected by the students following democratic procedures, and is renewed periodically to enable all children to gain leadership experience.

Assessment and grade promotion differ substantially from the conventional school system. Its main role is making teachers and students aware of areas needing reinforcement. There is Flexible (not automatic) Promotion. Each child moves on to the next grade when he/she achieves the educational objectives set. This can take more (or less) time than a regular academic year. Any children temporarily absent from school can resume their studies without having to drop out.

The learning environment expands beyond the classroom. EN schools have a vegetable patch and a garden; sports grounds and community facilities form part of the wider school environment. Inside the school, there is space for the study corners, library, kitchen, dining-room and washroom facilities. Teachers often have living facilities for them and their families on the school premises. The natural environment is the main object of study and provides most of the resources for teaching and learning.

(b) Teacher training
EN teachers have a role of facilitators - guiding, directing and evaluating learning - and of  community leaders and organizers. These roles imply major attitudinal changes. Therefore, attitude changes - pedagogical and social - are given emphasis in teacher training.

Initial training (for new teachers) includes three sequential workshops - 
initiation, methodology and organization - each of one week's duration, and use of the library. After the first and second workshops, there is a six-month and a three-month interval, respectively, so that teachers put in practice what they learned. Attending the first workshop is a requisite for including the school in the EN program and for teachers to start working with it. The idea is to reproduce in teacher training the methods and real-life situations that the teachers will encounter in their classrooms and in their relations with the students.

In-service training takes place through so-called Rural Micro-Centers, where teachers can exchange, update and upgrade their knowledge and experience on an ongoing basis. They operate with groups of 10 to 15 teachers from neighboring areas.


(c) The administrative component
This is the one that has received least attention. It is a crucial and complex area, involving political and institutional factors that go beyond administrative issues. Administration "has more to do with giving direction than with controlling" (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990), which means that administrative officials, too, must familiarize themselves with the program's objectives and components, and especially with its pedagogical aspects.

EN is a decentralized program. A coordinator and a small team (ten persons in 1991, most of them involved with EN in leadership positions since its inception) are responsible for co-ordinating and designing policies and strategies, and evaluating implementation. At the departmental level, the structure comprises a representative committee, a coordinator and a team of multiplier agents. From 1987 onwards - when the Plan for the Universalization of Rural Primary Education was launched and the EN expansion process began - several changes were introduced in the administrative structure with emphasis on decentralization. Two new structures were created: a universalization committee at national and departmental levels, and educational units (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990).

(d) The school-community relationship
The EN school is expected to operate as an information center and a focal point for community integration. The school-community relationship is one of mutual benefit, with parents and the community joining in school activities, and the school promoting activities to foster local development and improve the quality of life of the population.

In order to facilitate teachers' understanding of the community and the local conditions, EN uses various tools: the Family Record (information about the agricultural activities of the area and its seasons), the Neighborhood Map and the District Monograph. Students, parents and the community participate in their elaboration.

EN tries various ways of involving parents in their children's activities and stimulating children's interest in learning more about their parents and their lives. The library, the school premises and cultural and recreational activities are open to the community. Achievement Days - days when academic results are announced and the school government reports on its activities - are opportunities for sharing school and community activities.

Demonstration Schools, organized in each department where the program operates, are schools in which the four components can be "seen" operating in exemplary conditions. Visiting a Demonstration School is a key strategy for teacher motivation and training.

4. ESCUELA NUEVA: A PEDAGOGICAL INNOVATION

Educational innovations often give prominence to organizational aspects and neglect the pedagogical ones. Many innovative experiences are recognized as such for the changes they introduce in management, planning and evaluation, infrastructure, and/or curriculum content. Teaching and learning relationships, approaches and methodologies, the corner-stone of educational change, are often overlooked. The central role of pedagogy and of pedagogical change is one of EN's most remarkable features.

EN combines features of progressive educational theory. The program is based on the philosophy of the Unitary School (derived from the Active School): multigrade teaching, individualized instruction, active learning, educational materials that enable the teacher to work with several groups at once, and automatic promotion.

EN's methodology includes learning by doing, linking theory and practice, individual and group work, study and play, guidance and self-instruction. Children learn to think for themselves, to analyze, investigate and apply what they have learned. Active learning principles are also applied to teachers in their own training and in their daily work in schools. The conventional duties of the teacher-instructor are shared the learning guides (contents and methods), the library (an additional reference source), the study corners (observation and experiment areas), the group of students (who work together and help each another) and the school government (where children learn democratic values and procedures).

Teacher training emphasizes teaching and the capacity to innovate. The micro-centers promote team work, experience sharing and critical analysis of teachers' practice.

EN's slogan "More and better primary education for rural children in rural areas", describes this attempt to reconcile quantity and quality. It is not just a matter of providing children in rural areas with access to education: they deserve and need good education. Departing from conventional teaching practice -- top-down, authoritarian, rote and passive learning -- is a crucial element in EN's development and achievements.

5. ESCUELA NUEVA RESULTS

Comprehensive evaluations of the EN program have been conducted so far by Psacharopoulos et al. (1992), and Rojas and Castillo (1988). Both utilize data collected in 1987 in 11 Colombian departments. 

Psacharopoulos found that EN students achieve higher scores than their counterparts in conventional rural schools (except in fifth grade Mathematics) as well as improved self-esteem, creativity and civic behavior -- co-operation, responsibility and solidarity. EN has increased community participation in school-related activities and has reduced drop-out rate among children completing fifth grade (however, not third grade). Rojas and Castillo found that EN has had a significant impact on adult education, agricultural extension, athletic competitions, health campaigns, and community celebrations.

EN has changed the face of rural education in Colombia. It is proving that it is possible  to design an educational model tailored to the rural context, that includes both quality and efficiency. EN is showing that some of the traditional disadvantages of rural areas can be turned into advantages - ample space, linkages with nature, natural resources, contact with the community, central role played by the school and the teacher in community life, etc.

6. SOME CONCERNS 

As with other acclaimed innovative experiences, there is a tendency to deny or minimize problems and limitations. However, we know there are always discrepancies between the ideal, desired model and its implementation.

A study trip (1991) to see EN operating in the field allowed me first-hand contact with the many EN strengths and also with some of its weaknesses (Torres, 1991). So far I have referred to the former; I shall now refer to the latter.

There is room for improvement in all the components and elements described. In fact, the EN coordinating team is not satisfied with any of them. The Guides require thorough revision (three revisions have been carried out to date), especially in Mathematics and Language. Many contents and activities need to be better adjusted to the circumstances and needs of a rural child. Not many teachers are using the adaptation mechanism built into the Guides. There are limitations in the instructional design, too formal and inflexible for the requirements of do-it-yourself learning materials such as these.

There are shortcomings in teacher training -- coverage and quality. The rural micro-center strategy is not yet fully understood or established in all areas. School governments are not always set up or, where they are, not always as planned. A controlling or paternalistic approach by teachers and adherence to form and ritual may defeat the objective of the school government. The school-community relationship depends to a great extent on the teachers' initiative; their characteristics, training and personal motivation determine the quality of that relationship, which often replicates conventional school patterns.

The teaching of reading and writing - basic skills and the factor which largely determines children's academic future - is still one of EN's main shortcomings. As indicated, there are no Guides for first grade, leaving teachers free to choose the literacy methods and techniques they deem most appropriate. This is an open invitation to the conventional teaching approaches and outdated methods that prevail in literacy education. One of the major challenges facing EN is coming up with new ideas in this area, drawing on the important knowledge and experience gained in the region and internationally.

The teacher-student relationship proposed by EN has yet to be fully owned and applied. While some teachers are moving towards a new teaching role, others continue to apply conventional teaching approaches. Translating EN principles and strategies into practice implies a long and complex process.

EN demands two main roles from teachers: a teaching role and a community role. It is not easy to strike a balance between the two. Demonstration Schools seem to be placing more emphasis on the community relationship than on teaching. 


There is a conflictual institutional issue. Although EN is a government program framed within the Ministry of Education, the relationship is difficult and never fully clarified. From open boycott to passive resistance, EN has often had to swim against the tide or operate on the fringes of the system, looking for the support of international organizations and private Colombian organizations. Its precarious situation within the government structure weakens the program's capacity to consolidate and expand.

A long evolutionary process such as the one EN has witnessed can lead to development and progress, but also to stagnation. Efforts are necessary to rejuvenate it continually. The aging of Escuela Nueva is a recurrent concern among those involved in the program. 

Expansion has brought both an aggravation of old problems and a series of new ones. As stated (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990), the "cost of going for scale" has included "inevitable sacrifices in terms of effectiveness and efficiency" and has resulted in "a reduction in the number of days spent on training workshops or, in some places, a failure to provide the study guides in time for the training sessions. One consequence of these problems is, of course, a weakening of experiential learning in teachers' training, added to teacher apathy and criticism of the program." The new administrative structure that has emerged as a result of the program's expansion has led to conflict with the technical teams, not always consulted, and has caused a sharp rise in the number of administrative officials with training demands that the program has been unable to meet.

Another factor is the proliferation of "demonstration schools" during the expansion phase. Although such schools are considered to be a key strategy to maintain quality, their introduction on a massive scale may have the opposite effect.

6.1. IS ESCUELA NUEVA A MODEL THAT CAN BE REPLICATED?

The combination of innovation and replicability is highly valued, especially by international organizations. Innovative experiences are expected not only to expand, but also to adapt to other contexts.
In fact, many would like to find a magic one-size-fits-all formula for primary education in rural areas in "developing countries". A few comments on EN in this regard.

In the first place, the specific nature of EN as it has developed in Colombia must be born in mind. It is a formal, public, rural, multigrade, primary education program. These characteristics must not be overlooked when considering possible adaptations or variants. Nor must it be forgotten that EN is a system organized around four components (curriculum, training, administration, and community), not an assortment of isolated elements.

There are a number of factors of Colombia's EN Program that are unique and not readily available or easily replicable in other contexts. 


"Rural school"  "Rural schools" are very different in different places. Colombian "rural schools" are generally well endowed with infrastructure and equipment (government loans with the World Bank in the late 1970s and in the 1980s improved the physical infrastructure of rural schools in the country). Many EN schools have housing facilities for the teachers and their families. Many have a kitchen, a dining-room, washrooms, running water, electricity, television. This is not the reality of rural schools in many Latin American countries and in most "developing countries". 


Languages  Colombia is a rather homogenous country in linguistic terms. The EN program has a tremendous advantage in dealing with one language: Spanish. In the majority of Latin American countries and throughout the world, multilingualism is the norm. Introducing the EN model in bilingual or multilingual contexts means venturing into entirely new territory.

Teachers' educational background  According to the World Bank study (Psacharopoulos, 1992), most EN teachers have secondary or higher education. Also, compared with other rural schools in Colombia, EN has more teachers living on the school premises. Both factors - teachers' level of education and teachers living in the school - have a positive impact on students (a university education was associated with better cognitive outcomes; teachers residing in the school was associated with better scores in creativity and civic behavior).
 

A long process  EN has made a long and distinctive process. "In Escuela Nueva, the necessary technical conditions have been met, since the program has been designed and put to the test over a period of 15 years. Furthermore, the present government has fulfilled the necessary political conditions. In addition, adequate financial conditions have been assured through the allocation of government funds, a loan from the World Bank and the cooperation of UNICEF, which has lent its support to maintain the quality of the program as it expands" (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990). How many countries and governments can offer such a combination of technical, political and financial circumstances?

Technical capacities  Let us mention only one crucial component of EN: the Learning Guides. As acknowledged by the World Bank, elaborating good textbooks needs highly specialized technical competence that is not easy to find: "Translating curriculum specifications into good textbooks requires considerable expertise. Textbooks must have the appropriate content and reading level; be consistent in approach, method and exposition; be properly sequenced; motivate the students; and finally, be readily taught by less qualified teachers, yet allow good teachers to expand upon them. Throughout the world, few individuals possess the expertise required for writing good textbooks" (Lockheed and Verspoor, 1991). How many programs can avail themselves of such human and technical expertise?

Financing  In addition to government funds channeled through the Ministry of Education, EN has been receiving regular financial support from various international agencies - USAID, IDB, UNICEF, the World Bank - and from private organizations. The estimated cost of EN is between 5% and 10% higher than that of conventional schools (Schiefelbein, 1991), while teacher training costs at least three times higher (Psacharopoulos, 1992). Can similar financial support be expected in other countries? Can EN itself expect sustained support to enable it to continue to expand while improving its quality?

Survival  In a world where policies and programs are easily discontinued by government changes or international decisions, EN stands out as an exceptional innovative experience. How has EN been able to survive the political and administrative instability characteristic of Latin America and of Colombia specifically? Someone has attributed EN's success to "a mixture of advertisement, strategic support, academic standing of the developers, and simple luck" (Schiefelbein, 1991). The "luck" factor no doubt covers a wide range of unpredictable, inexplicable and non-reproducible factors.

Leadership  Studies show that one of the characteristics of successful programs and effective schools is the role played by specific individuals with drive, vision, leadership, charisma, and perseverance. This is true in the case of EN. The original team remained relatively stable. Individuals in key positions have had a decisive impact on the program's development, locally and nationally. "Even though Escuela Nueva has been institutionalized in the whole country, the support it receives in some provinces largely depends on the personal preferences of local administrators" (Psacharopoulos, 1992, p. 19).

Ten years elapsed between EN's official establishment as a program in 1975 and its adoption as a national education policy in 1985. The process has followed three stages (Ministry of Education-UNICEF, 1990): (a) learning to be effective (1975-1978), (b) learning to be efficient (1979-1986), and (c) learning to expand (since 1987). Even with the time, resources and planning that went into the program's development, everything indicates that EN was not equipped to cope with its rapid expansion, at least not without jeopardizing its quality. If this happens with a resourceful program such as EN, what can be expected of programs that are required to expand and even achieve universal implementation without having gone through the stages and met the requirements essential to their very survival? Pressure from governments and international organizations to reach big numbers, show results and become successful models in record times does not help real, transformative, sustainable innovation in the educational field.

There is a great deal that Colombia and other countries can learn from EN. There is also a great deal that can be done to consolidate and improve the program, while protecting it from the hazards of fashion and the risks of domestic shifts.

Radical changes required in education today takes second place when concerns continue to focus on access rather than on effective learning. Universalizing access to education without universalizing quality education, is delivering more of the same that produces non-learning, frustration, drop-out, repetition, and wastage of resources.

Transforming formal education is a major challenge. Schools must become less formal and more flexible, relevant, useful, creative, enjoyable, responsive to students' and teachers' needs, respectful of diversity, open to participation by parents and the community and accountable to society. EN is showing a way to do it in Colombia. It is important to know the program better and learn from its many lessons.

ADDED NOTES


[1] In 1992, professor Oscar Mogollón joined the Academy for Educational Development (AED) - a US-based non-profit -  to work on the design and implementation of the Active School approach in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru and Equatorial Guinea. He passed away in 2010. See: Oscar Mogollón and Marina Solano de Mogollón, Active Schools: Our Convictions for Improving the Quality of Education, AED, 2011.

REFERENCES

COLBERT, Vicky and Jairo Arboleda, "Universalization of Primary Education in Colombia: The New School Programme", UNESCO-UNICEF-WFP Co-operative Programme, Paris, July 1990. 


COLOMBIA Ministry of Education-UNICEF, El Programa de Escuela Nueva. Más y mejor educación primaria para los niños de las zonas rurales, Bogotá, 1990.

LOCKHEED, M. and VERSPOOR, A., Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press, a World Bank publication, Washington, 1991.

PSACHAROPOULOS, George, ROJAS, Carlos, and VELEZ, Eduardo, "Achievement Evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva", in Working Papers, World Bank, Washington, D.C., April 1992.

SCHIEFELBEIN, Ernesto, In search of the school of the XXI century: is the Colombian Escuela the right pathfinder?, UNESCO-UNICEF, Santiago, 1991.

TORRES, Rosa María, Escuela Nueva: Una innovación desde el Estado, Fronesis, Colección Educación Nº 2, Quito, 1991.



Related texts in this blog 
» Rosa María Torres and Manzoor Ahmed, Reaching the Unreached: Non-formal approaches and Universal Primary Education
» Rosa María Torres, Transforming formal education from a Lifelong Learning perspective
» Rosa María Torres, On Innovation and Change in Education
 

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